Follow the rules!

Follow the rules!

Lesson overview

In this Intermediate ESL lesson, students will review modals of obligation, prohibition, necessity and advice, and practice using them in writing and conversation.



The student reads a paragraph, paying special attention to the modal verbs. They try to identify them and talk about the use of modals in their own words.


Obligation and prohibition

Modal verbs have to and must are explained and exemplified. Then, the two modals are contrasted. The student completes sentences with the missing modals have to, don’t have to, must, and mustn’t.


Giving advice

The student learns how to give advice using should. Then, they need to decide on the correct modal for each sentence – must, have to, or should.


Video: The Chewbacca defense

After watching the video The Chewbacca defense, the student discusses questions related to it.


Review of modals

In the final part of the lesson, the student completes sentences with the correct modals, thus revising what they learnt in the lesson. This is followed by a speaking exercise in which they read different situations and come up with a reaction to each of them using modals.

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